Sunday, August 2, 2009

Ulama Kontemporari: Al-Sheikh Prof. Dr. Yusuf al-Qaradawi

Yusuf al-Qaradawi (Arabic: يوسف القرضاوي Yūsuf al-Qaraḍāwiy), (born September 9, 1926) is an Egyptian Muslim scholar and preacher best known for his popular al Jazeera program, ash-Shariah wal-Hayat ("Shariah and Life"), and IslamOnline (a website that he helped to found in1997), where he offers opinions and religious edicts ("fatwa") based on his interpretation of the Qur'an. He has also published some fifty books, including The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam and Islam: The Future Civilization.

Although al-Qaradawi has long had one of the more prominent roles within the thought leadership of the Muslim Brotherhood[1], he has twice turned down offers for the official directorship role of the organization.[2] Among many Muslims, he is considered a moderate conservative, who seeks to explain and adapt the ideals of the Islamic lifestyle with those of modern society.[3]


Al-Qaradawi was born in Egypt. Following his father's death, the two year old Qaradawi was raised by his uncle. His family urged him to either run a grocery store or to become a carpenter. Instead, he read and memorized the entire Qur'an by the time he was nine years old. Qaradawi was a follower of Hasan al-Banna during his youth and was imprisoned first under the monarchy in 1949, then three times after the publication of Tyrant and the Scholar. He attended the Al-Azhar Theological Seminary before moving to Qatar....

During his time at al-Azhar, al-Qaradawi oversaw the Muslim Brotherhood's (Wafd-government-approved) paramilitary training camp there, alongside fellow Muslim Brothers Ahmed al-'Asal and Abdallah al-'Aqil. The camp, along with others like it at other Egyptian universities, taught university students how to use weapons and explosives, and drilled them in a doctrine of religious war against the occupying British and Israelis.[4]

He worked in the Egyptian Ministry of Religious Endowments, was the Dean of the Islamic Department at the Faculties of Shariah and Education in Qatar, and served as chairman of the Islamic Scientific Councils of Algerian Universities and Institutions.

He was a longtime member of the Muslim Brotherhood, and has turned down offers to be the Brotherhood's leader various times. Qaradawi is the head of the European Council for Fatwa and Research. [5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26]


Statements on Jews

In a sermon, which aired on Al-Jazeera TV on January 9, 2009 (as translated by MEMRI), Al-Qaradhawi stated:

"Oh Allah, take your enemies, the enemies of Islam. Oh Allah, take the Jews, the treacherous aggressors. Oh Allah, take this profligate, cunning, arrogant band of people. Oh Allah, they have spread much tyranny and corruption in the land. Pour Your wrath upon them, oh our God. Lie in wait for them. Oh Allah, You annihilated the people of Thamoud at the hand of a tyrant, and You annihilated the people of 'Aad with a fierce, icy gale. Oh Allah, You annihilated the people Thamoud at the hand of a tyrant, You annihilated the people of 'Aad with a fierce, icy gale, and You destroyed the Pharaoh and his soldiers — oh Allah, take this oppressive, tyrannical band of people. Oh Allah, take this oppressive, Jewish, Zionist band of people. Oh Allah, do not spare a single one of them. Oh Allah, count their numbers, and kill them, down to the very last one."[27]

John Whittingdale, chairman of the Culture, Media and Sport Select Committee of the British House of Commons, subsequently called on Al-Jazeera to apologize for screening the sermon and to ban al-Quaradawi from appearing in the future. Al-Jazeera responded that it cannot control the content of live broadcasts. In an interview with the Times, Whittingdale stated "I would hope that anyone who watches is or is aware of it may change their attitude towards Al Jazeera. I would've thought it is very damaging. Al Jazeera should apologize." Andrew Dismore, the Labour MP for Hendon, condemned al-Jazeera for associating itself with al-Quaradawi, saying the network should not use live coverage as a means of justifying the broadcast of the sheik’s comments, and argued that "If they put on somebody who has known racist views they should not be surprised what comes out at the other end." The Board of Deputies of British Jewscondemned Al-Qaradhawi, stating that: “These sermons represent hatred in its purest form and epitomise the worst of Islamist anti-Semitism.”[28][29]

This was not the first time that Al-Qaradhawi has been accused of Antisemitism. In August 2005, the Wall Street Journal reported that the Dublin-based European Council for Fatwa and Research, of which Al-Qaradhawi is president, had used the infamous Protocols of the Elders of Zion in its theological deliberations.[30]

Statements on the Torah

In a sermon which aired on Qatar TV on June 5, 2009 (as translated by the MEMRI), Al-Qaradhawi stated that:

"Never have I seen a single verse, paragraph, or sentence in the Torah which calls for peace. Everything in the Torah constitutes a call for war. They even call God "Lord of Hosts" – they don't call Him "Lord of the Universe" or "the Compassionate, the Merciful...[The Torah contains] the notion of annihilation. We saw it when the Europeans went to America – they tried to annihilate the Indians. When they went to Australia, they tried to annihilate the aboriginal people. Indeed, they annihilated them. This is a biblical notion – annihilate them totally, do not leave a living soul among them."[31]

Sectarian views

Qaradawi has been an avid caller to what he calls "Islamic Sufism", praising those who practice it as pious.[32]. He has also been a staunch defender of the Ashari school of belief within Islam, going so far as to claim that the whole Muslim world follows this school as well as all Muslim religious schools in the world.[33]

Qaradawi has also described Shi'ites as liars, "heretics" [34] and "treacherous" [35]. In response, the Iranian Press Agency has described Qaradawi as "a spokesman for “international Freemasonry and rabbis".[36]

Suicide bombings

Qaradawi strongly supports Palestinian attacks on Israeli targets. Qaradawi claims that hundreds of other Islamic scholars are of the same opinion.

Defending bombings against off duty soldiers Qaradawi told BBC Newsnight that:

§ "An Israeli woman is not like women in our societies, because she is a soldier."

§ "I consider this type of martyrdom operation as an evidence of God's justice."

§ "Allah Almighty is just; through his infinite wisdom he has given the weak a weapon the strong do not have and that is their ability to turn their bodies into bombs as Palestinians do".[37]

At the press conference held by the organizations sponsoring Qaradawi's visit to London, Qaradawi reiterated his view that Suicide attacks are a justified from of resistance to Israeli occupation. In the past, Qaradawi has justified those actions on the basis that all Israel civilians are potential soldiers since Israel is a "militarized society."

Due to this, Qaradawi has been accused by many Western countries and Israel of supporting terrorism.

However, he is opposed to attacks outside of the Palestinian territories and on other than Israeli targets. For example, on March 20, 2005, Qaradawi issued a condemnation of a car-bombing that had occurred in Doha, Qatar the day before. One Briton, Jon Adams was killed. Qaradawi issued a statement[38] that said "Such crimes are committed by insane persons who have no religious affiliation and play well into the hands of the enemies." and "I urge all Qataris to stand united in facing such an epidemic and uproot it to nip the infection in the bud, otherwise it will spread like wildfire. I, in the name of all scholars in Qatar, denounce such a horrendous crime and pray that it would be the last and implore God to protect this secure country.".

See also his comments here:[39].

Opinion on the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict

In response to Muslim scholar 'Abdullaah ibn Jibreen's fatwa declaring that it was forbidden for Muslims to support or pray for Hezbollah because they are Shia, Qaradawi issued a contrary fatwa, stating that it was mandatory for all Muslims to support Hezbollah in its fight against Israel, claiming that "Shias agree with the Sunnis in the main principles of Islam while the differences are only over the branches." In this fatwa, he also called upon the Sunnis and Shia of Iraq to end the civil war.[40]

Eulogizing Saddam

The following are excerpts from an address by Sheikh Yousuf Al-Qaradhawi, which aired on Qatar TV on January 5, 2007[41]:

"I would have liked the Iraqi people to be interested, first and foremost, in the resistance against the occupation, in liberating its land from the American occupation, and in liberating its will from the new American colonialism, and only after liberating its land and its will - to place Saddam and others on trial. But when the American ruler gives the order to set up the tribunal, and when the Americans supervise the trial, and their generals are present at it - this is unacceptable to us.

"I do not accept the trial of Saddam under American rule. This is not an Iraqi trial, but an American one. The Americans want to quench their thirst for vengeance against this man, whose neck they could not twist, and whose will they could not bend. This is the man who launched 39 missiles against Israel, and Israel has not forgotten this. This is the man whose nuclear reactor they destroyed, so that there would be no nuclear power in the region, whether peaceful or military, except for Israel.

"This is the man who adopted the Palestinian cause throughout his life. This is the man who said 'No' to the Americans, and who never agreed to be blindly subservient, or to grovel. He could have settled for partial solutions, or met them halfway and showed flexibility, and they might have been content with this - but this man refused. That is why the Americans insisted that he be tried and executed. Then, the death sentence was carried out on the holiday. The Americans denied responsibility for this, and their ambassador said: 'I asked the Iraqi government to postpone the execution for two weeks, but the government insisted that it be carried out on the holiday.' Unfortunately, some of the [Shi'ite] religious and political leaders said that this was not their holiday, and that their holiday was celebrated the next day - on Sunday, not Saturday. Accursed be he who said this."


He Stood Solid as a Mountain, and Said the Two Parts of the Shahada

"A human soul must be respected. These people did not respect the human soul. The man was calm and kept his cool. He refused to be blindfolded, and insisted upon facing death with open eyes. They covered their faces, while his face was not covered. He stood solid as a mountain, and said the two parts of the shahada: 'I bear witness that there is no God but Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His messenger.' 'I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His messenger.' He said: 'I bear witness that there is no God but Allah,' but they did not let him complete it, and they beheaded him. The man died saying: 'There is no God but Allah.' How can anyone curse a man, who says: 'There is no God but Allah'? Anybody whose last words are 'There is no God but Allah' goes to Paradise."


Saddam Was a Changed Man, Did Charitable Work, and Helped People Build Mosques

"The thing that improves [the record] of Saddam Hussein is that in his final years - as the brothers in Iraq tell us - he was a changed man. He began to strictly observe the prayers, to read the Koran, and to do charitable work. He would hasten to do anything that may help people. He would help build mosques, and would say that if anybody wants to build a mosque, the government should pay half the cost of the building materials. When they entered his secret hideout and caught him, they found a prayer carpet and an open Koran."

Boycott fatwa

According to IslamOnline, Qaradawi released a fatwa on April 14 2004 stating boycott of American and Israeli products was an obligation for all who are able.[18][42] The fatwa reads in part :

"If people ask in the name of religion we must help them. The vehicle of this support is a complete boycott of the enemies' goods. Each riyal, dirham …etc. used to buy their goods eventually becomes bullets to be fired at the hearts of brothers and children in Palestine. For this reason, it is an obligation not to help them (the enemies of Islam) by buying their goods. To buy their goods is to support tyranny, oppression and aggression. Buying goods from them will strengthen them; our duty is to make them as weak as we can. Our obligation is to strengthen our resisting brothers in the Sacred Land as much as we can. If we cannot strengthen the brothers, we have a duty to make the enemy weak. If their weakness cannot be achieved except by boycott, we must boycott them.

American goods, exactly like "Israeli" goods, are forbidden. It is also forbidden to advertise these goods. America today is a second Israel. It totally supports the Zionist entity. The usurper could not do this without the support of America. "Israel's" unjustified destruction and vandalism of everything has been using American money, American weapons, and the American veto. America has done this for decades without suffering the consequences of any punishment or protests about their oppressive and prejudiced position from the Islamic world."

Pokemon fatwa

In 2001, Saudi Arabia banned the game of Pokémon as a Zionist plot; Qaradawi issued a fatwa endorsing this in December 2003, saying that Pokemon not only uses Jewish and Masonicsymbols, but teaches evolution. Not only do Pokemon evolve, they do so "in battles where the survivors are those who adapt better to the environment; another of Darwin's dogmas." In addition, both depiction of imaginary animals and card-games are contrary to the Quran. Qaradawi also notes that some Japanese expressions squeaked and gibbered by Pokemon may mean "I am a Jew" and "Become a Jew," but admits the matter is controversial and he isn't certain.[43]

Mecca Time

In April 2008, at a conference in Qatar titled "Mecca: the Center of the Earth, Theory and Practice", Qaradawi advocated the implementation of Mecca Time to replace the Greenwich Meridian as the basis of the world time zone system.[44].

Criticism from Muslim Scholars

Qaradawi urged the Taliban to reconsider its decision to tear down the Buddha statues in Afghanistan in 2001. He was quickly criticized for supporting "idol worship". Upon meeting with leaders from the Taliban, Qaradawi reversed his position and praised the act of the destruction of the statues. [45]

The late Salafi scholar Muhammad Naasiruddeen al-Albaanee disagreed with Qaradawi's stance that photography and pictures were lawful, even authoring a book in response to those positions.[citation needed]

Qaradawi also came under heavy criticism for a comment during a sermon in which he stated, regarding Benjamin Netanyahu's victory as the Prime Minister of Israel by a large margin, that "Allah himself would not achieve this." Fellow Muslim scholar Muqbil bin Haadi al-Waadi'ee also authored a book criticizing Qaradawi titled Silencing the Hounding Dog in which he questioned this statement as possible disbelief.[46] Muhammad ibn al Uthaymeen reacted similarly when the statement was played for him from an audio tape, stating that it was obligatory for Qaradawi to repent from the statement or otherwise he should be "killed as an apostate."[47]

Democratic perspective

Qaradawi has at times spoken in favor of democracy in the Muslim world,[48] speaking of a need for reform of political climates in the Middle East specifically.[49]

However, his true preferences on democracy, and for the government of the state and the public area are not always as clear, as following quote illustrates: "the Shari`ah cannot be amended to conform to changing human values and standards, rather, it is the absolute norm to which all human values and conduct must conform ...". However in a democracy a majority vote might differ from the commandments in the Qur'an and Sunnah, so this quote can be taken to mean that Qaradawi would not allow Muslims to vote against the word of Allah.

On religious rights

The same goes for his views on the religious liberties. Those effectively include the right for anyone to change religion, in casu, for a Muslim to become a non-Muslim.

However, Al-Qaradawi appears to see this differently, hiding between the assumed consensus in Islamic world: "All Muslim jurists agree that the apostate is to be punished. However, they differ regarding the punishment itself. The majority of them go for killing; meaning that an apostate is to be sentenced to death."

Note that when Al-Qaradawi speaks about 'Muslim jurists', that does not refer to Muslims trained in the secular law, as what the term 'German jurist' or 'Christian jurist' means ('Christian jurist' as opposed to 'canon law specialist'). In non-Muslim countries, one distinguishes 'religious law' from 'secular law'. For Al-Qaradawi, the only kind of jurists he mentions when the rules of the state are discussed, are the specialists of religious laws.

Danish cartoon controversy

Qaradawi called for a "Day of Anger" over the cartoons,[50] but condemned violent actions in response to them.[51]


On June 5 2006, on the Al Jazeera "Sharia and Life" programme he regularly features on, al-Qaradawi reiterated orthodox views on homosexuality. [52] When asked about the punishment for people who "practise liwaat (sodomy) or sihaaq (lesbian activity)", al-Qaradawi replied: "The same punishment as any sexual pervert - the same as the fornicator." (MEMRI translation)[53]


After the September 11 attacks, Qaradawi, urging Muslims to donate blood for the victims of the attacks, stated,[54]

"Islam, the religion of tolerance, holds the human soul in high esteem, and considers the attack against innocent human beings a grave sin, this is backed by the Qur'anic verse which reads:

Who so ever kills a human being for other than manslaughter or corruption in the earth, it shall be as if he has killed all mankind, and who so ever saves the life of one, it shall be as if he had saved the life of all mankind," (Al-Ma'dah:32).

"The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, is reported to have said, 'A believer remains within the scope of his religion as long as he doesn't kill another person illegally'"

"Islam never allows a Muslim to kill the innocent and the helpless." He denies that Palestinian suicide bombing attacks constitute terrorism, claiming that "when Palestinians face such unjust aggression, they tend to stem bloodletting and destruction and not to claim the lives of innocent civilians", but qualifies that with "I do agree with those who do not allow such martyr operations to be carried out outside the Palestinian territories."

In modern times, Qaradawi has suggested the legitimate use of suicide bombings against enemy combatants if the defending combatants had no other means of self-defense.[55]

Entry into western countries

Qaradawi has been banned from entering the United States of America since 1999 and the United Kingdom since 2008,[56] though he visited London in 2004.[57] In July 2003 he visitedStockholm, Sweden, for a conference at the Stockholm Mosque arranged by the Muslim Association of Sweden. During the conference al-Qaradawi expressed his support for suicide attacks against Israeli civilians which he called a "necessary Jihad".[58]

Fatwa controversy with MEMRI

The Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI), citing Asharq Al-Awsat, alleges that Qaradawi issued a Fatwa following the Iraqi insurgency, saying,

"...all of the Americans in Iraq are combatants, there is no difference between civilians and soldiers, and one should fight them, since the American civilians came to Iraq in order to serve the occupation. The abduction and killing of Americans in Iraq is a [religious] obligation so as to cause them to leave Iraq immediately. The mutilation of corpses [however] is forbidden in Islam."[59]

Qaradawi, however, denies this allegation:

I have not published a Fatwa on this issue. At the Egyptian Journalists' Union a few days ago I was asked about the permissibility of fighting against the occupation in Iraq, and I answered that it is permitted. Afterwards I was asked concerning the American civilians in Iraq and I merely responded with the question – are there American civilians in Iraq? It is a matter of common knowledge that in Fatwas such as these I do not use the word "killing" but rather I say "struggle," which is a more comprehensive word than the word "killing" and whose meaning is not necessarily to kill. In addition, I have condemned the taking of hostages on a number of occasions in the past and have demanded that they be released and that their lives not be threatened."[60]

Shaker Al-Nabulsi, a former Muslim [61] who writes for the liberal site Ethal, called for the creation of a petition to the UN calling to put Qaradawi and his like on trial for incitement and support of terrorism. [62]

Alcohol fatwa controversy

Qaradawi issued a fatwa in recent months stating that the consumption of small amounts of alcohol (<0.5% id="cite_ref-62">[63] The statement was made regarding energy drinks, where fermentation occurs naturally as part of the production process. This does not contradict with the widespread view that consuming alcohol is totally forbidden to Muslims. (chapter 5: verses 90-91). The fermentation in this process is natural and unavoidable, similarly it is an extremely small proportion.[5] Nonetheless, Muslim scholars worldwide have differed significantly on this issue.


§ Time in the life of the Muslim

§ Priorities of the Islamic Movement in the Coming Phase

§ Towards a Sound Awakening

§ The Status of Women in Islam

§ Islamic Awakening between Rejection and Extremism

§ The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam

§ Diversion and Arts In Islam (in progress)

See also

§ Abdullah bin Bayyah

§ Khurshid Ahmad

§ Qur'an

§ Quick list on Islam


1. ^ Olivier Guitta (February 20, 2006). "The Cartoon Jihad: The Muslim Brotherhood's project for dominating the West". The Weekly Standard. Volume 11, Issue 22.

2. ^ "Al-Qaradawi Turns Down Offer to Assume Leadership of the Muslim Brotherhood". al-Jazeera. January 12, 2004.

3. ^ Hugh Miles, Al-Jazeera

4. ^ Saddiq, 'Ali, Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun Bayn Irahab Faruq wa Abd al-Nasser (The Muslim Brothers between the Terror of Faruq and Abd al-Nasser, Dar al-Itisam, Cairo, 1987, pp.56-59

5. ^ BBC World News Profile of Sheikh Yusuf Qaradawi

6. ^ "Our War with the Jews Is in the Name of Islam": partial transcript of Qatari TV show, Feb. 25, 2006, translated by MEMRI

7. ^ Eulogizes Saddam Hussein and Declares: In Recent Years, Saddam Was a Changed Man, Did Charitable Work and Helped People Build Mosques

8. ^ Calls Upon Iraqi Kurds to Join Sunni Fight against Shiites Once Mediation Fails

9. ^ Original version of fatwa later edited, stating that apostates deserve to be killed

10. ^ Islam-Online (English)

11. ^ Al-Qaradawi's Homepage (Arabic)

12. ^ Truth about Qaradawi (Arabic)

13. ^ Some Mistakes of Yusuf al-Qaradawi

14. ^ Mayor Livingstone and Sheikh Qaradawi

15. ^ Fatwas at Islam Online

16. ^ 9/11 Fatwa

17. ^ Fatwa on boycott of American and Israeli products

18. ^ a b "". Retrieved on 2007-06-18.

19. ^ Biography and Moderate Vision

20. ^ Qaradawi on Arab Reform: Interview with Al Jazeera

21. ^ BBC Story on Qaradawi's Visit to London

22. ^ Islamonline's Story of Qaradawi's Visit to London

23. ^ The Herald Islamic moderate or rabble-rouser?

24. ^ Hour of Power with an Islamist Superstar by Martin Kramer

25. ^ Speech on MEMRI TV

26. ^ Yusuf al-Qaradawi

27. ^ Sheikh Yousef Al-Qaradhawi On Al-Jazeera Incites Against Jews, Arab Regimes, and the U.S.; Calls on Muslims to Boycott Starbucks and Others; Says 'Oh Allah, Take This Oppressive, Jewish, Zionist Band of People... And Kill Them, Down to the Very Last One', MEMRI - Special Dispatch No. 2183 January 12, 2009.

28. ^ British lawmakers slam Al Jazeera, Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA), February 8, 2009.

29. ^ MPs condemn hate sermons on Arabic TV station al-Jazeera by Richard Kerbaj, The Times, February 7, 2009.

30. ^

31. ^ Sunni Scholar Sheik Yousuf Al-Qaradhawi Protests: Obama Drew a Parallel between the Koran and the Bible, MEMRI, Clip #2138, June 5, 2009.

32. ^ On Tassawuf Shaykh Yusuf al-Qaradawi

33. ^ Al Ghazaly Man of Da'wah

34. ^ [1]

35. ^ [2]

36. ^ "Try to be nice about each other, A Sunni preacher upsets the Shias, Sep 25th 2008, CAIRO, From The Economist print edition [3]

37. ^ "". Retrieved on 2007-06-18.

38. ^ "". Retrieved on 2007-06-18.

39. ^ Interview with Britain's Guardian newspaper

40. ^ Qaradawi urges Muslims to support Hezbollah. Gulf Times

41. ^

42. ^ "". Retrieved on 2007-06-18.

43. ^ >Saudi bans Pokemon. March 26, 2001, Retrieved on July 22, 2007; Umberto Eco, Turning Back the Clock, as tr. by Alastair McEwen, Harcourt Books, 2007, pp 56-7, citing Massimo Introvigne: "Pokémon: a Judeo-Masonic Plot." Il Giornale September 17, 2004. Quote, and title of article, in McEwen's translation.

44. ^ BBC:Muslim call to adopt Mecca time

45. ^ "". Retrieved on 2007-06-18.

46. ^ Muqbil bin Haadi al-Waadi'ee, Silencing the Hounding Dog, pg. 110-112

47. ^ Muqbil bin Haadi al-Waadi'ee, Silencing the Hounding Dog, pg. 199

48. ^ Muslim world needs democracy, says Qaradawi - The Muslim News - Saturday, July 8, 2006

49. ^ Reform according to Islam. Al Jazeera English

50. ^ Daily Telegraph

51. ^ Qaradawi Condemns Violent Cartoon Protests.

52. ^ "". Retrieved on 2007-06-18.

53. ^ "". Retrieved on 2007-06-18.

54. ^ Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qaradawi Condemns Attacks Against Civilians: Forbidden in Islam

55. ^ Abdelhadi, Magdi (July 7, 2004). "Controversial preacher with 'star status'". BBC News. Retrieved on 2007-05-13.

56. ^ "Muslim cleric not allowed into UK". BBC News. 2008-02-07. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.

57. ^ Militant Ideology Atlas, Combating Terrorism Center, West Point

58. ^ Malm, Fredrik (August 21, 2003). "Massmordspredikan i svensk moské" (in Swedish). Dagens Nyheter.

59. ^ "". Retrieved on 2007-06-18.

60. ^ MEMRI as above, citing al-Hayat

61. ^ "". Retrieved on 2008-10-13.

62. ^ "". Retrieved on 2007-06-18.

63. ^ [4]

External links

§ Islam Online

§ Personal website (in Arabic)

§ Al-Qaradawi's books translated into English and French

§ Soage, Ana Belén,

§ "Shaykh Yusuf Al-Qaradawi: Portrait of a leading Islamist cleric", MERIA Journal 12/1 (March 2008), pp. 51–65.

Sumber: Wikipedia (akses pada 3 August 2009).

1 comment:

Doc Scanner said...

Hi, very good article.
Thanks for sharing keep up the good work.
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